We see in 1 Samuel 14 why Jonathan and David were such good friends. Jonathan sounds like David before Goliath when Jonathan says that there’s nothing stopping the Lord from saving with just a few people. It is just two of them against who knows how many thousands of Philistines.
Jonathan puts a fleece before the Lord and it happens. Jonathan trusts God and acts on it. He doesn’t ask for confirmation or make an excuse about going to get others to help now that they know it’s the Lord’s will to take the Philistine garrison. Jonathan attacks and the Lord gives the victory.
Saul sees the camp in confusion and they realize that Jonathan and his armor bearer are not there with them.
Is Saul jealous? Does he not want to be left out of this victory? He asks the priests to come. He is supposed to have the Lord’s go-ahead to attack. The priest comes, but Saul sees that the commotion is increasing in the Philistine camp. He can’t wait. He should wait. He basically tells the priest never mind. He leads the troops to attack, to join in the fray.
God saves Israel, but they are having a hard time of it in the battle. Maybe that would have been different if Saul had waited on the Lord’s direction.
Saul acts again without wisdom and puts a curse on anyone who eats. This leads to greater sin because the men are so hungry that when they get the victory, they start eating meat with its blood in it.
The Lord doesn’t answer Saul when he asks about going up to the Philistines. Saul wants to know what sin is hindering them. When you don’t hear from the Lord, do you just go and do whatever it is you think you should do, or do you ask Him to search your heart and show you if there is any sinful way in you?
We’re to live in unbroken communion with the Lord. If that communion is broken, we need to seek Him until it’s set right. That doesn’t mean He has to answer in the time and way we want Him to. Sometimes we have to wait for an answer, but we know He’s asking us to wait, not that He’s turned His face away. It never means He wants us to be our own savior and ignore Him. Acknowledge Him in all your ways!
Saul ends up breaking that rash oath because it would mean killing the one who had faith in God to deliver. God saves Jonathan. Saul is just falling more and more. It’s the time to repent and run to God.