The Odyssey Study Guide Answers

Lesson 39 – Book I

  1. Odysseus is imprisoned on an island by the daughter of Atlas, Calypso, who wants Odysseus for herself.
  2. Athena is disguised as a stranger, Mentes, the Taphian leader.
  3. Suitors have come and are eating enormous amounts of food and pressuring Penelope.
  4. The suitors insist Odysseus must be dead and Penelope should marry one of them.
  5. Athena advises Telemachus to grow up and take charge, send the suitors home, and go on a search for news of his father.

Lesson 40 – Book II

  1. She tells them to wait until she has woven a shroud, but she weaves by day and unravels by night.
  2. She gives him wise advice, encourages him, goes with him, gives him a ship, a crew, and a good wind.

Lesson 41 – Book III

  1. Nestor admires Odysseus.
  2. He offers prayers and sacrifices for her favor.

Lesson 42 – Book IV

  1. He sheds tears over Odysseus’ and resembles him.
  2. He loves him, admires him, and feels indebted to him.
  3. He plans to ambush his ship and kill him.

Lesson 43 – Book V

  1. Hermes
  2. He’s sent to tell Calypso to let Odysseus go home.
  3. He can put people to sleep or awaken them.
  4. She doesn’t want to let Odysseus go, but she obeys.
  5. Poseidon sends a terrible storm and batters Odysseus’ raft.
  6. Odysseus washes ashore and falls asleep under the protection of some olive shoots.

Lesson 44 – Book VI

  1. She tells Nausicaa to wash her clothes and travel to the water by cart.
  2. The girls are playing ball and the ball goes into deep water, causing them all to shout. Their noise wakes Odysseus.
  3. Athena put courage in her heart.
  4. She makes him look taller and stronger and makes the hair on his head grow thick and long.
  5. She’s afraid people will gossip and think poorly of her if they see Odysseus riding with her in the cart.
  6. She tells him to hide in her father’s garden, then later go into town, ask for her father’s house, and entreat her mother’s favor.

Lesson 45 – Book VII

  1. They are best known for shipping, and the women for weaving.
  2. They treat him royally.

Lesson 46 – Book VIII

  1. He uses food, drink, song, games of sport, and dancing.
  2. He’s a blind bard who sings and plays the lute.
  3. He gives him a ship and excellent sailors to take him home safely.
  4. He weeps.

Lesson 47 – Book IX

  1. They experienced forgetfulness of home and a desire to stay.
  2. The door was so heavy that 22 carts could not move it.
  3. He kills and eats two crew members.
  4. He realizes they can’t move the rock away from the cave opening.
  5. He gives him a gift of wine.
  6. He says he will eat Odysseus last.
  7. They hide under the bellies of sheep.
  8. He begins to taunt the Cyclops.
  9. He tears the top off a high mountain and throws it at Odysseus’s ship.
  10. A prophet prophesied that the Cyclops would lose his sight by the hand of Odysseus.
  11. He asks Poseidon to heal him and to give Odysseus much trouble on the way home and when he gets home.

Lesson 48 – Book X

  1. Aeolus son of Hippotas.
  2. He binds up the stormy winds in a sack.
  3. They open the sack thinking there’s gold inside and they release the storms.
  4. They threw rocks at Odysseus and his men and speared them like fishes and took them home to eat them.
  5. She drugged them and turned them into pigs.
  6. She sends him to Hades to perform certain rituals.

Lesson 49 – Book XI

  1. He offers sacrifices.
  2. He is a seer.
  3. He wants to know his fate.
  4. He says it will be a hard trip home, but it will be possible for him to make it.
  5. He should take revenge and kill them.
  6. He should make peace with Poseidon.
  7. She died of longing for Odysseus.

Lesson 50 – Book XII

  1. They lose all desire for home and they just die listening to the song.
  2. She says his men should stuff their ears with wax and he should be tied to the mast.
  3. She describes her as a monster with 12 misshapen feet, six necks and heads, and three rows of teeth in each head.
  4. She is a whirlpool that will devour Odysseus’s ship if he gets too close.
  5. He did not tell them about Scylla.
  6. Odysseus told them repeatedly not to kill the cattle of the sun but they did it anyway while he was sleeping and they were killed for it.

Lesson 51 – Book XIII

  1. He slept soundly the entire way, even after they arrived and they lifted him out of the ship.
  2. He wants to kill all the men in the ship and erect a mound around the city.
  3. He decides not to take anybody else home and to offer sacrifices to Poseidon.
  4. She wants to disguise him for his protection so he can best the suitors.
  5. She tells him to wait at the swineherd’s until she brings Telemachus.

Lesson 52 – Book XIV

  1. Eumaeus
  2. He says Odysseus (himself) will return this very year and do vengeance on all those who are ill-treating his wife and son.
  3. He is a beggar, an old man, with holey clothes and gray hair.

Lesson 53 – Book XV

  1. He’s taken care of his flocks and honored Odysseus’s parents.
  2. (Answers will vary)

Lesson 54 – Book XVI

  1. He calls him old friend.
  2. She gives him nice clothes, a strong body, and a beautiful face and skin.
  3. Telemachus thinks Odysseus is a god.
  4. They plan to take away the suitors’ weapons and armor and hide them away, keeping two of them for themselves.

Lesson 55 – Book XVII

  1. He tells her to wash her face, change her dress, go upstairs with her maids, and promise sacrifices to the gods if they’ll grant revenge upon the suitors.
  2. He says that Odysseus is already in Ithaca and will have revenge.
  3. His dog, Argos, recognizes him immediately.
  4. Antinous
  5. He wants to test their loyalty.

Lesson 56 – Book XVIII

  1. Irus is a beggar who wants to beg at Odysseus’s house and doesn’t want the “competition” of Odysseus begging there as well.
  2. She tricks the suitors into giving her presents.
  3. Melantho and Eurymachus anger Odysseus.

Lesson 57 – Book XIX

  1. He tells her that he met Odysseus a long time ago and that he will be coming soon.
  2. She recognizes a scar on his leg.
  3. A wild boar attacked him while he was hunting with his grandfather.
  4. Penelope is challenging the suitors to string Odysseus’s bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axes like Odysseus used to do. That will be the suitor she chooses.

Lesson 58 – Book XX

  1.  Melanthius the goatherd and Ctesippus treat Odysseus poorly.
  2. Philoetius is kind to Odysseus.
  3. (Answers will vary)

Lesson 59 – Book XXI

  1. He reveals himself to Eumaeus and Philoetius.
  2. They fear he will succeed and shame them.
  3. He successfully strings the bow and shoots the targets.

Lesson 60 – Book XXII

  1. He kills Antinous. He seemed to be the leader and had mocked Odysseus the beggar relentlessly.
  2. He claims that everything was Antinous’s fault.
  3. Melanthius is caught taking weapons. They bind him and hang him from the rafters.
  4. Phemius the minstrel begs to be spared. Telemachus says he is guiltless, as well as Medon who was good to him when he was a boy.
  5. Odysseus asks Euryclea to send them to him.
  6. He has them help clean up the mess the battle has created, and then he has them hanged.
  7. He is violently killed.

Lesson 61 – Book XXIII

  1. She tells Euryclea to move his bed. He built it in a way that it can’t be moved.
  2. She is so overcome with shock, she can’t believe it’s really him.
  3. He has to travel a long distance and make a sacrifice to Poseidon. His reward will be a long, happy life.
  4. He leaves to go see his father. He tells Penelope to stay upstairs with the women, to see nobody, and to ask no questions.

Lesson 62 – Book XXIV

  1. He shows him his scar and tells how he got it before sharing other memories.
  2. He’s afraid the townspeople will seek revenge for the death of the suitors.
  3. The families of the slain suitors.
  4. He kills Eupiethes, the father of Antinous.
  5. Athena stops the battle.