Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire lasted from 1299 to 1923. It was centered in Turkey and controlled the eastern and southern lands around the Mediterranean Sea. The empire was founded by Osman I around 1299, and was most powerful from around 1400 to 1600, when it controlled trade and politics in southeastern Europe, southwest Asia, and northern Africa.


Suleiman the Magnificent was one of the most powerful rulers.

The empire was a collection of conquered countries. The Sultan sent governors to rule these countries or provinces.

In later years, the Ottoman Empire began to weaken. The empire stopped expanding and Europe and India grew stronger economically.

In the latter part of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire became known as “the sick man of Europe.” The empire was defeated in World War I and broke into pieces.


Battle of Nicopolis in 1396; Painting from 1523


Sultan Mehmed II’s entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)


Battle of Mohács in 1526


Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538


Ottoman miniature about the Szigetvár campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars as avantgarde


Battle of Lepanto in 1571




(source – above, CC BY-SA 3.0)


The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire

Expansion of the Ottoman Empire

A Map of the Decline of the Ottoman Empire

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

(source for the bottom two maps)