Layers of the Earth

Cutaway diagram of the earth’s layers

The structure of the Earth is divided into layers. These layers are both physically and chemically different. The Earth has an outer solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core, and a solid inner core.

The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is made of solid rocks. It is mostly made of the lighter elements like silicon, oxygen, and aluminium.

The mantle is the layer of the Earth right below the crust. It is made mostly of oxygen, silicon, and the heavier element magnesium. The mantle is mostly made up of liquid rock. It’s what lava is made of. Lava is escaping rock, which was melted by the heat of the mantle.

The core is made of solid iron and nickel, and is about 5000ºC – 6000ºC (9,000ºF – 11,000ºF).

  1. Outer core is a liquid layer below the mantle.
  2. Inner core is the very center of the Earth. It is very hot and, due to the high pressure, it is solid.

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