Genghis Khan’s Conquests

In 1206, Temjuin was officially named as the ruler of the Turko-Mongol people.  From this point on he is known as Genghis Khan.  He began to build and train a powerful army, soon recognized as the strongest in the world.  From 1207 to 1209, Genghis and the Mongolian army battled with the Xi Xia kingdom of China.
He next set his attention on dominating the Jin Dynasty in China.  The Mongol army scaled the Great Wall in 1213 and ultimately seized control of the capital, Yanjing, in 1215.
During this time, Kuchlug, a tribe leader who lost power when Genghis rose to power, had been gathering forces in the west. Because of all the battles in China, Genghis sent a smaller force (around 20,000 soldiers) under Jebe, a young general, to face Kuchlug. Despite the smaller force, the Mongol army defeated Kuchlug. This conquest gave Genghis and the Mongol Empire control of most of Asia and extending west to Lake Balkhash.
The Mongol Empire was bordered on the west by Khwarizm, a Muslim state. In 1218, Genghis sent representatives to his neighbor, Khwarizm, to discuss trade. In answer, the Khwarizmian governor killed the Mongol representatives. Genghis responded by sending 200,000 troops. Instead of establishing trade relationships, Genghis decided to expand the Mongolian borders to encompass the Muslim world. By 1220, the Mongol Empire had defeated and demolished the Khwarizmian Empire.
After this, the Mongol army raided throughout Afghanistan and India as well as through parts of Russia. This resulted in the addition of Transoxiana and Persia to the Mongol Empire. In a battle known as the Battle of Kalka River in 1223, Mongol troops also destroyed the army (and prince) of Kiev. This history of attack and domination gave Genghis Khan a reputation as a ruthless warrior.